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隔墙售电引爆分布式光伏 电力市场走向新时代

2018-12-08 浏览次数:89

2017年(nian)(nian)进(jin)入(ru)倒计时,全国已经进(jin)入(ru)了冬(dong)日的(de)世界,但是严严寒(han)冬(dong)却盖不住分布(bu)式光伏(fu)的(de)熊(xiong)熊(xiong)的(de)火焰。2017年(nian)(nian)以来,在国家政策及市场(chang)需求的(de)双(shuang)重作用之下(xia),我(wo)国分布(bu)式光伏(fu)取得了爆(bao)发式的(de)增(zeng)长,特别(bie)是户用市场(chang)的(de)发(fa)展(zhan)令人(ren)震惊(jing)。数据显示,2017年(nian)(nian)前三季度我(wo)国分(fen)(fen)布式(shi)新增装机(ji)15.3GW,增长(zhang)4倍。根据OFweek行业(ye)研究中心分(fen)(fen)析师孙栋栋预测,我(wo)国户用(yong)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)市场前景诱(you)人(ren),其规模达180GW ,2017年(nian)(nian)我(wo)国户用(yong)分(fen)(fen)布式(shi)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)户数将达40万户,2018年(nian)(nian)将达80万户。分(fen)(fen)布式(shi)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)火不火?简直太火了(le)!而国家能(neng)源(yuan)局(ju)出台的(de)一(yi)项政策又(you)给(ji)分(fen)(fen)布式(shi)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)添了(le)一(yi)把(ba)火!

隔墙售(shou)电引爆分(fen)布式光伏(fu) 电力(li)市场走(zou)向(xiang)新时(shi)代(dai)

2014-2018年我(wo)国(guo)户用分布式光(guang)伏市(shi)场增(zeng)长情况(来源:OFweek行业研究中心)

近(jin)日(ri),发改委、能源局(ju)联(lian)合(he)发布(bu)了(le)《关于开展(zhan)分布(bu)式发电(dian)(dian)市场化交易试点的通知(zhi)》(以(yi)下简称“通知(zhi)”),通知(zhi)表明,分布(bu)式能源项目在 110kv 电(dian)(dian)压等级内可以(yi)选择就近(jin)销售电(dian)(dian)量。这(zhei)意味着分布(bu)式将可以实(shi)现“隔墙售电(dian)”,该政(zheng)策的(de)实(shi)行不但是对分布式(shi)光伏的(de)巨大利好,而且将重构电(dian)力(li)市场(chang)交易秩序,推动我(wo)国电(dian)力(li)市场(chang)走向新时代。

隔墙售电引爆分布式光伏

通知表明,接网电压等级在35千伏及以下单体容量不(bu)(bu)过(guo)20兆(zhao)(zhao)瓦(wa)的(de)项(xiang)目或(huo)者单体项(xiang)目容量过(guo)20兆(zhao)(zhao)瓦(wa)但不(bu)(bu)高于(yu)50兆(zhao)(zhao)瓦(wa),接网电压(ya)等(deng)级不(bu)(bu)过(guo)110千伏且在该电压(ya)等(deng)级范围内就(jiu)近消纳的(de)项(xiang)目可(ke)参与分布(bu)式发电市场化交易试点。

即满足条件的分布式发电项目单位(含个人,以下同)可以将电卖给就近的电力用户,在电力交易中,电网企业(含社会资本投资增量配电网的企业,以下同)承担分布式发电的电力输送并配合有关电力交易机构组织分布式发电市场化交易,按政府核定的标准收取“过网费”。

通知表(biao)明,考虑各地区(qu)推进电力(li)市(shi)场化交易的阶(jie)段性(xing)差别,分布式发电市(shi)场化交易可(ke)采取以下其(qi)中之一或(huo)多(duo)种模式:

(一)分(fen)布式(shi)发电项目与电(dian)(dian)力(li)用(yong)户进(jin)行电(dian)(dian)力(li)直接交易,向电(dian)(dian)网企(qi)业支付“过网费”。交易范围(wei)首先就近实(shi)现,原则(ze)上应限制(zhi)在接入点上一级(ji)变压器供电(dian)(dian)范围(wei)内。

(二)分布(bu)式发电(dian)(dian)(dian)项(xiang)目单位委托电(dian)(dian)(dian)网企业代售电(dian)(dian)(dian),电(dian)(dian)(dian)网企业对代售电(dian)(dian)(dian)量按综合售电(dian)(dian)(dian)价格(ge),扣除“过(guo)网费”(含网损电(dian)(dian)(dian))后将(jiang)其(qi)余(yu)售电(dian)(dian)(dian)收入转付给分布式发电(dian)(dian)(dian)项(xiang)目单位。

(三)电网企业按国家核(he)定的(de)(de)各(ge)类发电(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)标杆上网电(dian)(dian)(dian)价收购电(dian)(dian)(dian)量,但(dan)国家对电(dian)(dian)(dian)网企业(ye)的(de)(de)度电(dian)(dian)(dian)补贴要扣减配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网区域(yu)高(gao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)等(deng)级用户对应的(de)(de)输(shu)配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)价。

整体而言,在交易试点区域内,符合条(tiao)件的(de)分(fen)布(bu)式(shi)发(fa)电(dian)项(xiang)目(mu)可以将对电(dian)力用户直接售(shou)电(dian),也可以委托电(dian)网代(dai)售(shou),同时支付(fu)电(dian)网“过网”费用。通知还(hai)要求,光(guang)伏发(fa)电(dian)“隔墙售(shou)电(dian)”的(de)度(du)电(dian)补贴(tie)应在当地分(fen)布(bu)式(shi)光(guang)伏发(fa)电(dian)的(de)度(du)电(dian)补贴(tie)标(biao)准基础上降低(di),20MW 以内不(bu)低(di)于 10%,20~50MW 不(bu)低(di)于20%。那对于分(fen)布(bu)式(shi)光(guang)伏项(xiang)目(mu)来说(shuo),“隔墙售(shou)电(dian)”能带来哪些(xie)好处?

提高收益率

为了保(bao)证(zheng)交(jiao)易的(de)持久稳定(ding)(ding),同(tong)时保(bao)证(zheng)卖电(dian)方(fang)(fang)可享受到持续的(de)收益,通知规定(ding)(ding)参与交(jiao)易的(de)购电(dian)方(fang)(fang)应为符合国(guo)家产业政策导向、环(huan)保(bao)标准和(he)市场准入条件的(de)用(yong)电(dian)量较大且负(fu)荷稳定(ding)(ding)的(de)企业或其他机构,而且(qie)在电网结算方(fang)面(mian)不(bu)能有不(bu)良记录(lu)。

所以(yi)在(zai)分(fen)布式(shi)发电(dian)市场(chang)化(hua)交易(yi)试点中,对于自(zi)(zi)发自(zi)(zi)用余电(dian)上网的分(fen)布式(shi)光伏发电(dian)项(xiang)目来说,不用担心(xin)屋顶企业的用电(dian)稳定性和结算(suan)能力,可(ke)自(zi)(zi)主(zhu)选(xuan)择(ze)将剩余的电(dian)力卖给区域内电(dian)价高(gao)、用(yong)(yong)电(dian)量稳(wen)定的电(dian)力(li)用(yong)(yong)户(hu)。对(dui)于全额上网的分(fen)布式光伏发(fa)电(dian)项目来说,找到电(dian)价高(gao)的用(yong)(yong)户(hu)可(ke)以大幅(fu)提高(gao)收益率,此外,试(shi)点区域内(nei)的地面分(fen)布式光伏电(dian)站也(ye)可(ke)实现用(yong)(yong)户(hu)直(zhi)供电(dian),降低(di)限电(dian)风险(xian),提高(gao)收益率。

隔墙售电引爆分布式光伏 电力市场走向新时代

如此一(yi)来,户用光(guang)伏(fu)电(dian)站将会(hui)(hui)得到升值,度(du)(du)(du)电(dian)收(shou)益有望(wang)提高(gao)。目(mu)前全国(guo)大部(bu)分区域在白天用(yong)电(dian)高(gao)峰时(shi)段的(de)工商业(ye)用(yong)电(dian)都在1元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)左右,结合0.5元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)左右的(de)火(huo)电(dian)电(dian)价,户用(yong)光伏发电(dian)的(de)“隔(ge)墙售(shou)电(dian)”价格大概会(hui)(hui)在0.5元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)-1元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)之间,叠(die)加降低(di)后(hou)的(de)补贴(tie)(0.3元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)-0.378元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)),并去除过(guo)网费(fei)(0.15 元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)),该模式下(xia)的(de)户用(yong)光伏售(shou)电(dian)收(shou)益将会(hui)(hui)在0.75元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)-1.2元(yuan)(yuan)/度(du)(du)(du)之间。

降低(di)对光伏(fu)行业对补贴的依赖(lai)性,缓解补贴拖欠(qian)压力

如果分布式发电市场化交(jiao)易(yi)试(shi)点能够(gou)顺利(li)推广,那(nei)今后分布式光伏“隔(ge)墙(qiang)(qiang)售(shou)电”模(mo)式将(jiang)在(zai)全国得到落实。如此一来,分布式光伏将(jiang)可以通过“隔(ge)墙(qiang)(qiang)售(shou)电”模(mo)式实现用户侧(ce)平价上网,因(yin)为即使没有(you)补(bu)贴(tie)(tie),户(hu)用光伏(fu)的(de)电力依然(ran)可(ke)以卖(mai)个好(hao)价钱。虽然(ran)补(bu)贴(tie)(tie)终(zhong)有(you)一天(tian)会消失(shi),但是工(gong)商业用电的(de)需求却不会消失(shi)。在补(bu)贴(tie)(tie)彻(che)底退坡之后,找到(dao)了好(hao)客户(hu)的(de)户(hu)用光伏(fu)电站仍然(ran)可(ke)以维持较高的(de)收益水平。

通知(zhi)还表明(ming),符合(he)条件的地(di)面分布(bu)式(shi)光伏电(dian)站(zhan)也可以参(can)加(jia)电(dian)力交(jiao)易试点。这对(dui)持有大量地(di)面分布(bu)式(shi)光伏电(dian)站(zhan)却受困于补(bu)贴拖欠的企业来(lai)说(shuo)是一个好(hao)消(xiao)息。“隔墙(qiang)售电(dian)”模式(shi)之(zhi)下(xia),企(qi)业将获得稳定(ding)的现(xian)金流收入(ru),可大大改善公司的资(zi)金运转。这一定(ding)程(cheng)度上也缓(huan)解了企(qi)业受到的补贴拖欠压力。

提高光伏发电的(de)竞争力

作为一种(zhong)清洁能源,光伏发电一直都被(bei)打上了“不稳定(ding)”、“补(bu)贴(tie)支持”等标签,相对于火电、水电等传统能源,光伏发电似(si)乎并(bing)没有明显(xian)的优(you)势。但是在(zai)“隔墙售(shou)电”模式(shi)之(zhi)下(xia),光(guang)伏发电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)优势(shi)(shi)却得到(dao)(dao)了极大(da)的(de)(de)(de)体现(xian)。因为(wei)对于火电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、水电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)等(deng)传统能源来(lai)(lai)说(shuo)(shuo),规模(mo)达(da)到(dao)(dao)一(yi)定程度才能保(bao)证成(cheng)本(ben)优势(shi)(shi),所以一(yi)个(ge)区域内的(de)(de)(de)火电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站和水电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站往往是有限的(de)(de)(de),这(zhei)就(jiu)使得工(gong)商(shang)业(ye)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)往往需要长距离的(de)(de)(de)输送,造(zao)成(cheng)了过(guo)高的(de)(de)(de)输配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)成(cheng)本(ben)。但对于光(guang)伏发电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)来(lai)(lai)说(shuo)(shuo),小规模(mo)分布式光(guang)伏正是它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)特点(dian),在“隔墙(qiang)售电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)”模(mo)式下,光(guang)伏发电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)不但可以就(jiu)近对工(gong)商(shang)业(ye)企(qi)业(ye)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),而且可以降低输配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)成(cheng)本(ben)。这(zhei)样一(yi)来(lai)(lai),对于自(zi)(zi)身屋(wu)顶(ding)资源有限、无(wu)法完全覆盖自(zi)(zi)身用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)量的(de)(de)(de)大(da)工(gong)业(ye)、工(gong)商(shang)业(ye)等(deng)企(qi)业(ye)来(lai)(lai)说(shuo)(shuo),通过(guo)“隔墙(qiang)售电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)”可以用到(dao)(dao)比平时(shi)更便宜的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian);对于户用光(guang)伏业(ye)主来(lai)(lai)说(shuo)(shuo),也(ye)可以通过(guo)“隔墙(qiang)售电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)”实现(xian)更高的(de)(de)(de)收(shou)益,真正达(da)到(dao)(dao)了双赢!

小结

相(xiang)信看完以上内容,您已经明白了“隔(ge)墙(qiang)售(shou)(shou)电”为(wei)什么是(shi)分(fen)布式(shi)光伏(fu)的巨(ju)大利(li)好(hao)。可以预见(jian)的是(shi),针对户用(yong)光伏(fu)在该模式(shi)下极高的收益(yi)率以及市(shi)场固有的需求,“隔(ge)墙(qiang)售(shou)(shou)电”模式的(de)推广(guang)将会(hui)刺激分布式光伏再次迎来爆发。

而“隔墙售电”带来(lai)的影响绝不仅仅只限(xian)于光伏(fu)行业,它还将给整个(ge)电(dian)(dian)力(li)市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)带来一场(chang)风暴。具体而言(yan),在电(dian)(dian)力(li)体制(zhi)改(gai)革的背(bei)景下,分布式光伏(fu)、风电(dian)(dian)、天然气等(deng)项目为(wei)主的“隔墙售电(dian)(dian)”模式有望打破原(yuan)有的电(dian)(dian)力(li)交易规则,重构电(dian)(dian)力(li)市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)交易秩(zhi)序。今(jin)后无论是(shi)企业、单位还是(shi)个(ge)人(ren)都可(ke)以成为(wei)售电(dian)(dian)方(fang),收取电(dian)(dian)力(li)用(yong)户电(dian)(dian)费(fei)不再(zai)担心违约,可(ke)以打破现有的市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)垄断,促进电(dian)(dian)力(li)市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)向公平、低成本的方(fang)向发(fa)展。总体而言(yan),“隔墙售电(dian)(dian)”模式的推(tui)行将推(tui)动中(zhong)国电(dian)(dian)力(li)市(shi)(shi)(shi)场(chang)走向新时代。




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